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Accélérateur d’impact: un événement exceptionnel pour faire le point sur les enquêtes de couverture vaccinale (ECV) post-campagne

GENÈVE, le 15 juillet 2019 – 858 personnes étaient inscrites pour participer à cet événement sous l’égide de l’Accélérateur d’impact le 15 juillet 2019.

Avec la participation de Carolina Danovaro (OMS), Mamadou Diallo (UNICEF), David Koffi (ADS), et Carol Tevi-Benissan (OMS).

Voici l’enregistrement de l’événement.

Une ASV est toute activité vaccinale conduite en plus des services de vaccination systématique.

 Les enquêtes de couverture vaccinale post-campagne:

Consulter la page de l’OMS à propos de la couverture vaccinale

Qu’est-ce que l’Accélérateur d’impact?

  • Un système pour faire mieux, plus vite, et ensemble. 
  • Une composante de l’Approche Scholar développée par la Fondation Apprendre Genève.

Over 600 professionals from 53 countries connect to lead change towards global immunization goals

I would like to join hands with other Scholars to create a data improvement plan that will improve the quality of data in Lagos and in Nigeria as a whole.

Simisola Abedeji, Data Assistant, WHO, Nigeria

Over 600 professionals from 53 countries connect to lead transformative change towards the global immunization goals.

GENEVA, 1 JULY 2019 – The Geneva Learning Foundation (TGLF) today launched the first-ever exercise of its new Impact Accelerator.  Open to all Alumni working on immunization,  over 600 alumni from 53 countries have pledged to create a new dynamic, transforming projects developed during courses they have taken together into measurable progress towards the global goals for immunization.

“The Impact Accelerator offers a flexible approach to support professionals on the ground working for impact better and faster, together” explains Reda Sadki (@redasadki), president of the Geneva Learning Foundation. “We noticed Scholar Alumni were, without any support from us, implementing Scholar projects in the field and spontaneously coming together in informal groups.  When we performed the first impact evaluation, we found real, measurable impact from such initiatives. We realised that there was an opportunity to accelerate such change.”

Over a third  of the Scholars who have signed up to the Impact Accelerator programme work at the district level. Two thirds have displayed exceptional talent and leadership in Scholar courses, serving as volunteer tutors and coaches known as “Accompanists”.

These are the professionals who together have the potential to transform global guidelines into action in the field.

The structure and activities of the Impact Accelerator were finalised through five consultative meetings with Alumni. “It was indispensable”, says Sadki, “to recognise the value of Scholars’ experience and expertise of their own contexts. They know where the children are.”

“I would like to participate in the Impact Accelerator as a country team leader. I will first and foremost want to put in place a solid Scholar group for my country that is recognized, validated and supported by the country’s immunization leadership.”

Charlotte Njua Mbuh, Data Manager and Surveillance Officer, South Regional Delegation of Public Health, Cameroon

Alongside this inaugural exercise, the Foundation has also partnered with Dr David Koffi, who is leading a GAVI-supported project to accelerate the development of a new generation of vaccination coverage survey leaders. This project to improve the quality of surveys will provide field-based training to a small group drawn from the WHO Survey Scholar programme, an 18-week course to teach the WHO Coverage Cluster Surveys Reference Manual.

About the Foundation’s Scholar Approach

The Geneva Learning Foundation’s Scholar Approach is a state-of-the-art evidence-based package for capability development required to lead complex change. This unique Approach has already been shown to not only enhance competencies but also to foster collaborative implementation of transformative projects that begin as course work and end with impact.

The Scholar Approach is being developed with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

Leading change from the ground up: 300 Scholars from 51 countries take up the challenge of reducing inequities and improving coverage for immunization

GENEVA, 24 May 2019 (The Geneva Learning Foundation) – The sixteenth cohort from the WHO Scholar programme since 2016, kicking off Monday, aims to transform not one but four guidelines from WHO and UNICEF into action to reduce inequities and improve coverage.

300 immunization professionals from 51 countries were selected by WHO from over 1,500 applicants for this Level 2 Scholar certification. Alongside the course, the programme is also offering a webinar series for which over 2,200 participants have registered.

In six weeks, each Scholar will develop a context-specific action plan, drawing on the guidelines, to the extent that they are relevant and useful, but also on the experience and expertise of their peers.

One third of these new Scholars have direct responsibility for national immunization planning and another third contribute to it, with equal proportions of participants from central and district levels.

The participation of district-level immunization leaders is especially important, as this is “ground zero” where vaccination efforts ultimately succeed or fail. One in four are working at the district level.

UNICEF’s Godwin Mindra, author of the urban inequity tool kit said: “The work that we do at HQ would make no sense if at the country level it’s not translated into practical interventions. That’s why we come back to you at the country level, at the district level”

In the past, immunization training approaches have resorted to broken “cascade” or “training of trainer” models that have failed to produce the change needed to “move the needle” of immunization outcomes.

In the WHO Scholar programme, every course participant has direct access to the best available global experts, in addition to the knowledge contained in the guidelines.

Furthermore, 100 Scholars in the new cohort have more than ten years of immunization experience, providing deep experience and practical knowledge that complements the global guidelines. 

Over half of each cohort volunteers to serve as Accompanists, who form a tightly-knit community of peer tutors, coaches, and mentors to welcome and guide new Scholars.

This course will be offered in French later this year, as the WHO Scholar programme is multi-lingual.

About the WHO Scholar programme

The Geneva Learning Foundation’s Scholar Approach is a state-of-the-art evidence-based package for capability development required to lead complex change. This unique Approach has already been shown to not only enhance competencies but also to foster collaborative implementation of transformative projects that begin as course work and end with impact.

  • WHO has used the Scholar Approach since 2016 to support country-level action planning and capability development to improve immunization outcomes:
  • The WHO Scholar programme’s network is growing rapidly, with 4,467 English speakers and 2,968 Francophones from 90 countries having participated in the programme’s activities.
  • Working together, Scholars have used WHO guidelines to develop more than 2,000 peer-reviewed, context-specific projects, with over 90% reporting that they routinely use what they learned from the programme.
  • Over 400 programme participants have served as Accompanists, supporting their peers and exercising leadership in new ways that challenge failed, conventional training-of-trainer and cascade models.
  • In some countries, Scholars have spontaneously initiated informal, self-led and motivated groupings of professionals operating across agencies that may provide a different kind of lever for systemic change than traditional top-down approaches to addressing immunization challenges.
  • Building on these emergent dynamics, Scholars are now being invited to join the first Impact Accelerator, working with colleagues from their country toward collaborative project implementation.
  • The programme is fully digital, with no upper limit to the number of participants, and has mobilized participants without having to offer per diem, travel, or hotel accommodation.

The WHO Scholar programme is being developed by the Geneva Learning Foundation and its partners for the World Health organization, with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

WHO Scholar programme webinar series #1: Establishing and strengthening immunization in the second year of life (2YL)

How do we increase vaccination coverage for all ages with a system almost exclusively designed for newborns and babies?

This blog post is part of a series about the WHO Scholar programme’s webinar series in May and June 2019 about reducing inequities and improving coverage for immunization. Learn more and register for the webinars

GENEVA, 15 May 12019 (The Geneva Learning Foundation) – Over 2,200 immunization professionals from 96 countries registered to participate in the World Health Organization Scholar programme’s first open webinar series on reducing inequities and improving coverage for immunization. The inaugural webinar led by WHO’s Samir Sodha focused on immunization in the second year of life (2YL).

Watch the recording of this WHO Scholar programme webinar

Introducing the series, the World Health Organization’s Diane Chang Blanc reminded participants of the pledge that all individuals and communities should enjoy lives free from vaccine-preventable diseases. “That was part of the vision for the Decade of Vaccines,” she explained. “As we move into the next decade, we want to achieve that collectively as a global community.”

790 Scholars from 37 countries were in attendance, with a third connecting from the district level. 300 of them have been selected by the World Health Organization to participate in the first cohort of the WHO Scholar Level 2 certification in reducing inequities and improving coverage.

By 6 July 2019, this cohort will create hundreds of peer-reviewed, context-specific action plans to improve immunization outcomes, helping to transform WHO guidelines into action.

WHO Technical Officer Samir Sodha explained: “Today’s immunization system is currently almost exclusively designed for a one year old population. We can offer vaccines to a multiple-age population (newborns, pregnant women seniors). But, for each population, we need to develop unique strategies and platforms to get to them.”

Establishing and strengthening immunization in the second year of life offers a first step to establishing a life course approach for immunization “as it doesn’t necessarily require a new platform.” Nevertheless, Samir cautions that expanding coverage to the second year of life is not necessarily straightforward and requires a system-wide approach.

WHO Scholar programme webinar series #2: immunization services throughout the life course

It’s not just about immunization: vaccination as a part of integrated health services

This blog post is part of a series about the WHO Scholar programme’s webinar series in May and June 2019 about reducing inequities and improving coverage for immunization. Learn more and register for the webinars

GENEVA, 16 May 2019 (The Geneva Learning Foundation) – “Your job is not about immunization, not just about a single health topic. There is a wide-range of different health and even non-health topics being covered.”  So Aaron Wallace from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said in his introduction to over 700 immunization Scholars from 33 countries attending the second of six WHO Scholar programme webinars about reducing inequity and improving coverage.

Lead presenter Emily Wootton introduced the World Health Organization’s resource guide for the integration of immunization services throughout the life course. This publication is one of four new global guidelines presented in the webinar series to support Scholars leading change to improve immunization outcomes in their district, region, or country.

Watch the recording of this WHO Scholar programme webinar

“As we move to a life course approach for immunization, if we want to [achieve] impact, we really need to work in a different way. Integration with other programmes is going to become more and more important” added Wootton.

“Strong immunization systems, as part of broader health systems and closely coordinated with other primary health care delivery programmes are essential for achieving immunization goals” explained Emily Wootton.

So how do we integrate the delivery of vaccines along the life course? “Integration requires a global approach and an understanding of each specific context to be efficient” said Aaron Wallace. Wootton and Wallace warned Scholars to be “very careful” about the interventions they choose to integrate and ask themselves whether the changes they propose are going to be acceptable. “Don’t try to do everything all at once.”

WHO defines integrated health services as “health services that are managed and delivered so that people receive a continuum of health promotion, disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, disease-management, rehabilitation and palliative care services, coordinated across the different levels and sites of care within and beyond the health sector, and according to their needs throughout the life course”.

By 6 July 2019, this new WHO Scholar programme cohort will create hundreds of peer-reviewed, context-specific action plans to improve immunization outcomes, helping to transform four different WHO and UNICEF guidelines into action.“We would love these projects that people develop now to be implemented in the future,” concludes Emily Wootton.

About the WHO Scholar programme webinar series and course to reduce inequities and improve coverage

  • Over 2,000 immunization professionals from 96 countries have registered to participate in this open webinar series, with more than a third of active participants working at the district level.
  • 300 have been selected by the World Health Organization to participate in the first cohort of the WHO Scholar Level 2 certification in reducing inequities and improving coverage.
  • By 6 July 2019, this cohort will create hundreds of peer-reviewed, context-specific action plans to improve immunization outcomes, helping to transform WHO guidelines into action.

Making bright spots happen: WHO immunization Scholars from 90 countries commit to achieving impact

GENEVA, 15 May 2019 (The Geneva Learning Foundation) – “Bright spots” in routine immunization are stories about immunization programmes that have successfully improved performance at a subnational level in LMICs and LICs.

We can wait for them to happen. We can try to find them.

Or we can support those who make them happen.

On 15 May 2019, 189 Scholar Alumni from the latest cohort of the World Health Organization’s course on routine immunization planning united to commit to achieving impact towards the global goals for immunization.

Every Scholar has already developed a practical plan to improve routine immunization in their context, and has helped their colleagues improve their plans.

Now they are taking action to move from ideas to implementation.

Over one-third of Scholar Alumni work at the district level, where children live and where immunization outcomes actually happen.

They are part of a larger group of over 1,000 Alumni of the WHO Scholar programme. The first impact evaluation of the programme found a surprising number of Alumni who documented improved immunization coverage as a result of implementing projects that began as course work.

By actively supporting each other, Scholars hope to multiply such individual success stories into a collective effort where course work is transformed into implementation on the road to impact.

On 22 May, Scholars will reconvene, this time to hear first-hand such success stories from 60 WHO Scholar programme Alumni.

Over 400 Alumni are already actively supporting colleagues as Accompanists, peer tutors and coaches who demonstrate exceptional leadership and genuine care for colleagues who, when they first met, were complete strangers from halfway around the world.

This inaugural meeting is a milestone in the Geneva Learning Foundation’s project development to establish the first Impact Accelerator, a radically new approach to achieve impact better and faster, together.

The role of education in transforming for impact: A contribution to the OECD Forum 2019

By Reda Sadki (The Geneva Learning Foundation)

The assumption that countries have the capacity to take on recommendations from the best available knowledge, achieve understanding, and turn them into effective policy and action, leaves unanswered the mechanisms through which a publication, a series of meetings, or a policy comparison may lead to change. 

Technology has already transformed the ability of international organizations to move from knowledge production and diplomacy to new forms of scalable, networked action needed to tackle complex global challenges. This has created a significant opportunity for leaders to deliver on their mission.

‘Skills’ are necessary but insufficient

Some organizations are already offering high-quality, multi-lingual learning. Many are using digital technologies to scale, often at the cost of quality, helping large numbers of learners develop competencies. Conventional courses seldom produce change, even if they become digital and scalable. On their own, these are no longer innovative – much less transformative – goals. Several international organizations have built corporate universities and other types of learning functions that remain confined to the margins of the business and under threat from the next restructuring. None of these initiatives have moved the needle of impact.

Transforming for impact

At the Geneva Learning Foundation, we have developed a low-cost, scalable package of interventions for international organizations to leverage digital transformation to: (1) bridge the gap between thinking and doing at country level; and (2) foster the emergence of country leadership for positive change.

In our first three years, we have worked with partners across several thematic areas, developing this package to translate global guidelines into effective local action, to support capability development from competency to implementation, and to perform multi-country peer review at scale.

  • Over 1,500 professionals in 90 countries have already participated in pilots.
  • 96% of graduates are applying what they gained from the best available global knowledge to implement projects and lead change.

A new economy of effort to produce change

This package can complement or replace existing low-volume, high-cost face-to-face workshops and conferences that are difficult to scale and measure.

  • It is entirely digital (motivating participants without offering travel, hotel, or per diem) and participants do not need to stop work to participate, significantly reducing both expenditure and opportunity cost, while improving efficacy.
  • It has fostered the emergence of informal, self-led and motivated groupings of professionals operating across agencies that may provide a different kind of lever for systemic change than traditional top-down approaches to addressing challenges and can replaced failed, conventional training-of-trainer and “cascade” models.

Recognizing the value of such emergent dynamics creates authentic opportunities to accelerate the transformation for impact.

Fostering such emergence is the hard part.

Sustainable transformation for impact

Last but not least, our business modelling demonstrates that, if the organization has healthy relationships with its stakeholders, financial sustainability (cost recovery) can be achieved within three years, so this is not one more mechanism dependent on donor good will.

As we have seen existing partnerships leads to promising results – above and beyond our own expectations – we are slowly growing in confidence about the strengths and sustainability of what began as a series of small-scale pilot projects and experiments.

Along the way, we have also learned how difficult it is to find the right mix of ingredients to move from ideas to successful execution to develop such a programme if it is to contribute to systemic change.

We will be at the OECD Forum on 20-21 May 2019 to share these promising results with organisations and governments that see the need for new, better ways of achieving change in policy and practice.

About the author

Reda Sadki (blog | Twitter) is the founder and president of the Geneva Learning Foundation, the Swiss non-profit organization with the mission to connect learning leaders to research, invent, and trial breakthrough approaches for new learning, talent and leadership as a way of shaping humanity and society for the better.

In the past, Reda Sadki worked for the United Nations, primarily for the World Health Organization, and at the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC).

WHO Scholar webinars on reducing equities in immunization streamed on Facebook Live due to overwhelming demand

Over 2,000 immunization professionals have already registered to attend the webinar series offered by the WHO Scholar programme to support countries in planning and implementing immunization strategies to reduce inequities and improve coverage. More information about the webinars

Due to overwhelming demand beyond our initial capacity of 1,000 participants, we are now streaming each webinar on Facebook Live. (If you are already registered, you do not need to go to Facebook and may join using the invitation link you received by e-mail.)

  • These webinars are open to everyone.
  • There is no upper limit to the number of participants who can view the stream on Facebook.

If you find that you are unable to join the webinar room itself (using the ZOOM application), please view our Facebook page.

  • At the time of the event, you should see a prompt to view the Facebook Live stream.
  • If you like the page, you will then receive notifications when an event starts.
  • The recording of the webinar will be available on the Facebook page shortly after each event.

You are nevertheless encouraged to register for the WHO Scholar webinar series if you wish to receive automated reminders about each session.

About the WHO Scholar programme

The Geneva Learning Foundation’s Scholar Approach is a state-of-the-art evidence-based package for capability development required to lead complex change. This unique Approach has already been shown to not only enhance competencies but also to foster collaborative implementation of transformative projects that begin as course work and end with impact.

WHO has used the Scholar Approach since 2016 to support country-level action planning and capability development to improve immunization outcomes:

  • The network is growing rapidly, with 4,467 English speakers and 2,968 Francophones having participated in the programme’s activities.
  • Working together, Scholars have used WHO guidelines to develop more than 2,000 peer-reviewed, context-specific projects, with over 90% reporting that they routinely use what they learned from the programme.
  • Over 400 programme participants have served as Accompanists, supporting their peers and exercising leadership in new ways that challenge failed, conventional training-of-trainer and cascade models.
  • In some countries, Scholars have spontaneously initiated informal, self-led and motivated groupings of professionals operating across agencies that may provide a different kind of lever for systemic change than traditional top-down approaches to addressing immunization challenges.
  • Building on these emergent dynamics, Scholars are now being invited to join the first Impact Accelerator, working with colleagues from their country toward collaborative project implementation.
  • The programme is fully digital, with no upper limit to the number of participants, and has mobilized participants without having to offer per diem, travel, or hotel accommodation.

The WHO Scholar programme is being developed by the Geneva Learning Foundation and its partners for the World Health organization, with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

Invitation: WHO Scholar webinar series to reduce inequities and improve coverage

Are you committed to reducing inequities and improving coverage in your country?

The WHO Scholar programme is pleased to invite you to:

  • attend the webinar series about reducing inequities and improving coverage for immunization
  • share the invitation with your trusted colleagues and networks

Should you register for these webinars?

Please register for these webinars only if:

  • You are truly committed to reducing inequities and improving coverage for immunization; and
  • You are sure to attend.

Why is the World Health Organization offering this webinar series?

WHO recognizes that countries may need support to plan and implement the strategies and activities included in guidelines.

Many new strategies and related guidance documents to reduce inequities and improve coverage have been developed at WHO based on the GRISP (Global Routine Immunization Strategies and Practices) and RED (Reaching Every District) guidelines.

The WHO Scholar programme is therefore offering a webinar series open to everyone, focusing on four topics within the broad GRISP umbrella:

  1. Reducing missed opportunities for immunization (MoV).
  2. Strengthening immunization in the second year of life (2YL).
  3. Integrating immunization across the life course and with other health interventions.
  4. Urban immunization and other targeted strategies to reduce inequities.

These open, interactive webinars:

  • aim to answer “How do I…?” with practical examples and methods shared by a global expert.
  • support the progress of participants, who will be able to engage directly with the presenters.
  • will be open to attendance by those who are not taking the course, with no upper limit to the number of attendees.

Who should participate?

You stand to benefit from these webinars if…

  • You work in the MoH or partner agency in the national or sub-national EPI programme or you are part of the WHO EPI staff in a country office.
  • You are part of national or sub-national planning processes (cMYP, annual planning, GAVI TCA/HSS planning)
  • You are motivated to implement innovative ideas to reduce inequities and increase immunization coverage in your country context.
  • You have innovative ideas but need support to move from idea to action.

Participants in the WHO Scholar Level 2 certification in reducing inequities and improving coverage are expected to attend these webinars.

Webinar 1. Establishing and strengthening immunization in the second year of life (2YL)

  • 15 May 2019 at 14h (2 PM) Geneva UTC+2 (check time)
  • Topic: Establishing and strengthening immunization in the second year of life: Practices for vaccination beyond infancy, WHO 2018.
  • Lead presenter: Samir Sodha (WHO)

Webinar 2. Immunization services throughout the life course

  • 16 May 2019 at 14h (2 PM) Geneva UTC+2 (check time)
  • Lead presenter: Emily Wootton (WHO)
  • Topic: Working together: An integration resource guide for immunization services throughout the life course

Webinar 3. Reducing inequities in urban immunization

  • 27 May 2019 at 14h (2 PM) Geneva UTC+2 (check time)
  • Topic: Urban immunization toolkit and guidelines on reducing inequities in immunization.
  • Lead presenter: Godwin Mindra (UNICEF)

Webinar 4. Reducing Missed Opportunities for Vaccination (MOV)

  • 29 May 2019 at 14h (2 PM) Geneva UTC+2 (check time)
  • Topic: Planning Guide to reduce Missed Opportunities for Vaccination
  • Lead presenter: Laura Nic Lochlainn (WHO)

Webinar 5. Deep dive on immunization services throughout the life course

  • 5 June 2019 at 14h (2 PM) Geneva UTC+2 (check time)
  • Topic: Working together: An integration resource guide for immunization services throughout the life course
  • Lead presenter: Emily Wootton (WHO)

Webinar 6. Deep dive on immunization in the second year of life (2YL)

  • 12 June 2019 at 14h (2 PM) Geneva UTC+2 (check time)
  • Topic: Establishing and strengthening immunization in the second year of life: Practices for vaccination beyond infancy
  • Lead presenter: Samir Sodha (WHO)

Digital health: The Geneva Learning Foundation to bring AI-driven training to health workers in 90 countries

GENEVA, 23 April 2019 – The Geneva Learning Foundation (GLF) is partnering with artificial intelligence (AI) learning pioneer Wildfire to pilot cutting edge learning technology with over 1,000 immunization professionals in 90 countries, many working at the district level.

British startup Wildfire, an award-winning innovator, is helping the Swiss non-profit tackle a wicked problem: while international organizations publish global guidelines, norms, and standards, they often lack an effective, scalable mechanism to support countries to turn these into action that leads to impact.

By using machine learning to automate the conversion of such guidelines into learning modules, Wildfire’s AI reduces the cost of training health workers to recall critical information. This is a key step for global norms and standards to translate into making a real impact in the health of people.

If the pilot is successful, Wildfire’s AI will be included in TGLF’s Scholar Approach, a state-of-the-art evidence-based package of pedagogies to deliver high-quality, multi-lingual learning. This unique Approach has already been shown to not only enhance competencies but also to foster collaborative implementation of transformative projects that began as course work.

TGLF President Reda Sadki (@redasadki) said: “The global community allocates considerable human and financial resources to training (1). This investment should go into pedagogical innovation to revolutionize health (2).”

Wildfire CEO Donald Clark (@donaldclark) said: “As a Learning Innovation Partner to the Geneva learning Foundation, our aim is to improve the adoption and application of digital learning toward achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).”

Three learning modules based on the World Health Organization’s Global Routine Immunization Strategies and Practices (GRISP) guidelines are now available to pilot participants, including Alumni of the WHO Scholar Level 1 GRISP certification in routine immunization planning. They will be asked to evaluate the relevance of such modules for their own training needs.

About Wildfire

Wildfire is one of the Foundation’s first Learning Innovation Partners. It is an award-winning educational technology startup based in the United Kingdom.

  • Described by the company as the “first AI driven content creation tool”, Wildfire’s system takes any document, PowerPoint or video to automatically create online learning.
  • This may reduce costs and time required to produce self-guided e-learning that can help improve the ability to recall information.

About the Geneva Learning Foundation

The mission of the Geneva Learning Foundation (TGLF) is to research, invent, and trial breakthrough approaches for new learning, talent and leadership as a way of shaping humanity and society for the better.

  • Learning Innovation Partners (LIP) are startups selected by the Foundation to trial new ways of doing new things to tackle ‘wicked’ problems that have resisted conventional approaches.
  • The Foundation is currently developing the first Impact Accelerator to support learners using the Scholar Approach beyond training, with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

References

 (1) The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. “Framework for Immunization Training and Learning.” Seattle, USA: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, August 2017.

(2) Sadki, R., 2013. The significance of technology for humanitarian education, in: World Disasters Report 2013: Technology and the Effectiveness of Humanitarian Action. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva.